According to the Mayo Clinic, stem cells are the body’s raw material; from them all other cells with specialized functions are generated. Under the right conditions, stem cells divide to form more cells called daughter cells.
These daughter cells become new stem cells (self-renewal) or specialized cells (differentiation) with a more specific function, such as blood cells, brain cells, heart muscle cells, or bone cells. No other cell in the body has the natural ability to generate new types of cells.
All the cells in our body, including stem cells, contain the same genetic information; however, specialized cells such as those of the lung, heart, kidney, bone or skin, to name a few, only access the corresponding genetic information for that type of cell; that is, by specializing, they turn off the rest of the gene library and can no longer access it. A stem cell has unlimited access to the entire genomic library.
In addition to having the potential to differentiate and regenerate damaged cells, tissues, or organs; stem cells express proteins, called cellular messengers, that target the bloodstream and unleash a signaling cascade on all organs and cells in the body, modulating the immune system, the inflammatory response, and activating the body’s natural regenerative mechanisms. These proteins, released through exosomes, are responsible for most of the therapeutic effects of stem cells at the systemic level.
There are multiple application routes such as: intraarticular, intrathecal, dermal and intravenous. The application will depend on the type of condition or result that the patient wants to archive.
Where can we obtain stem cells from?
Placenta, endometrial tissue, bone marrow, fatty tissue